- Great Britain, the seat of the British Empire, was created through the union of England, Scotland and Wales in 1707. Long known for its superior naval skills, Great Britain played a pivotal role in the colonization of North America.
- Bonus: Expensive Manors replace houses. For every Manor built, you get a free Settler.
- Unique Units: Longbowman (long-ranged archer), Congreve Rocket (heavy artillery)
- Royal Guard: Redcoat Musketeer (Musketeer), King's Life Guard Hussar (Hussar)
- Replacing the Spanish as the wealthiest nation in the 18th century, the Dutch were a key proponent in managing the resources and profits gained from colonial North and South America.
- Bonus: The Dutch ave a limit of 50 Settlers instead of the usual 99. They're able to build banks in any age to generate coin, and Settlers cost coin instead of food, making them dependent on coin early.
- Unique Units: Envoy (scout), Fluyt (light war ship), Ruyter (ranged light cavalry)
- Royal Guard: Nassau Halberdier (Halberdier)
- France, the extensive colonizer of what would later become Canada, Louisiana and the Caribbean, was both a formidable foe to the British, and a trusted ally to a number of native cultures.
- Bonus: Instead of starting with typical Settlers, the French instead get Coureurs, an expensive but powerful villager limited to 80. They ally with the Natives easier, getting several unique Native cards, technologies, and bonuses.
- Unique Units: Coureur des Bois (unique settler), Cuirassier (heavy cavalry), Native Scout (scout)
- Royal Guard: Voltigeur (Skirmisher)
- Although Germany during AoE3's time period was simply a bunch of small nations, the strongest nation, Prussia, was a strong European power throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the Prussians didn't get involved in colonization, the fact alone that they represent all Germans nations in AoE3 shows that they weren't included to be realistic. Many Hessians, a German faction, were hired by the British to fight for them during the American Revolution.
- Bonus: With every shipment the Germans receive past the Discovery Age, they get free Uhlan cavalry, 1 for every Age they advanced (2 for Colonial, 3 for Fortress, 4 for Industrial). They also have the option of shipping over a Settler Wagon, a powerful and productive villager. It's also much easier to hire Mercenaries.
- Unique Units: Doppelsoldner (heavy melee infantry), Settler Wagon (unique settler), Uhlan (heavy cavalry), War Wagon (heavy ranged cavalry)
- Royal Guard: Needle Gunner (Skirmisher)
- The Ottoman Empire, situated in the prime position between Europe and Asia, was the location of great technological and militarist improvements. Even though the Ottoman Empire did not colonize (they focused on Europe), the Ottomans did have heavy influence on Eastern Europe, and possessed the main trade route to Asia until the path around Africa was discovered.
- Bonus: With the Ottomans, you don't have the option to build villagers. Instead they spawn slowly, for free, from your Town Center, and they do not stop until you have reached a limit. You must research technologies at your Mosque (Church) if you wish to go beyond that limit, and the Mosque also lets you increase their spawn rate as well. The Ottomans also have Colonial Age access to the Artillery Foundry.
- Unique Units: Abus Gun (light artillery), Cavalry Archer (mounted archer), Great Bombard (heavy artillery), Imam (unique healer), Janissary (heavy infantry), Spahi (heavy cavalry)
- Royal Guard: Gardener Hussar (Hussar), Baratcu Grenadier (Grenadier)
- Portugal, at one time the provocateur of what is now Brazil, was an active force in exploring the globe in the 15th and 16th centuries. As an empire, Portugal influenced one side of the globe to the other.
- Bonus: With every Age they advance, they recieve a free Covered Wagon, which you can turn into a Town Center at any location. Explorers have Spyglass special ability, which reveals any location selected.
- Unique Units: Cassadors (anti-infantry infantry), Organ Gun (light artillery)
- Royal Guard: Guerreiro Musketeer (Musketeer), Jinete Dragoon (Dragoon)
- Tsarist Russia, known for its military accomplishments and rapid expansion, was a strong military oriented nation. Colonation extended from what is now Alaska down to northern California, but Spanish settlement in those locations forced the ill-supplied settlers back to Alaska. Regardless, Russia was a substantial European power during AoE III's timeframe.
- Bonus: Trains Settlers and Infantry in groups -- Settlers in groups of 3, Halberdiers in groups of 4, Musketeers in groups of 5, and Strelets in groups of 10. All of these are cheaper and produced quickly, but are weaker than normal. They also have a unique building, the Blockhouse, that's a cross between a Barracks and an Outpost that takes the place of both buildings.
- Unique Units: Cavalry Archer (mounted archer), Cossack (fast light cavalry), Oprichnik (light raiding cavalry), Strelet (light infantry)
- Royal Guard: Pavlov Grenadier (Grenadier), Tartar Cavalry Archer (Cavalry Archer)
- Spain, one of the greatest colonizers of North and South America, was known for having acquired great wealth from the colonies during the 17th century. While Spain focused primarily on South America, developments in Europe often entangled it in the affairs of other colonizing nations.
- Bonus: The amount of Experience required each shipment is 27% lower, which makes shipments available faster.
- Unique Units: Lancer (anti-infantry heavy cavalry), Missionary (mounted healer), Rodelero (fast melee-infantry), War Dog (scout)
- Royal Guard: Tercio Pikeman (Pikeman)
In Age of Empires III, you have the option of aligning with a Native American tribe, using their unique units and technologies. This makes them into a sub-civilization with their own unit population limits and very affordable prices, with almost all units costing only small amounts of food and wood. Their technologies affect both the Native American units and European units, making them invaluable.
- A powerful central American nation that was well know for its conquests of neighbors. Their power was centered in Tenochtitlan, present day Mexico city.
- Units: Aztec Eagle Warrior, Aztec Jaguar Warrior
- Technologies: Aztec Initiation (improved explorer stats), Aztec Chocolate Recipes (1 coin crate for every 2 minutes game has lasted), Aztec Chinampa (improved villager mill gathering rate, improved fishing rate)
- Maps: Sonora, Yucatan
- A Caribbean tribe that valued the exploits of its warriors, and was also known to raid local colonies. They defended their lands fiercely and caused the frightened Spanish to avoid lands owned by their tribe.
- Units: Carib Blowgunner
- Technologies: Carib Kasiri Beer (improved archer or melee infantry damage), Carib Garifuna Drums (archer bonus vs villagers), Carib Ambush Party (explorer can train a small ambush party of blowgunners)
- Maps: Amazonia, Carribean
- A peaceful agricultural people living in settlements around the southern Appalachian mountains. They became increasingly hostile after contact with Europeans, becoming a part of the weapons trade and developing themselves as an independent nation.
- Units: Cherokee Rifleman (skirmisher)
- Technologies: Cherokee War Dance (improved tribe unit speed), Cherokee Basket Weaving (dock/market/mill/plantation upgrades don't cost wood), Sequoyah's Cherokee Syllabary (get shipment of settlers)
- Maps: Bayou, Carolina, New England
- Once a part of the Shoshoni tribe, the Comanche migrated after acquisition of the European horse, becoming a separate tribe in southwest America. They were widely known for their archery skills.
- Units: Comanche Horse Archer
- Technologies: Comanche Horse Breeding (improved cavalry HP), Comanche Trade Language (all research items cost less coin), Comanche Mustangs (improved cavalry speed)
- Maps: Great Plains, Rockies, Texas
- North American tribe that ranged from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. The Cree were excellence at hunting, becoming very active in the fur trade.
- Units: Cree Tracker (scout), Cree Coureur des Bois (unique settler)
- Technologies: Cree Textile Craftsmanship (buildings cost less wood), Cree Kinship (train trackers at Barracks), Cree Tanning (improved infantry and cavalry HP)
- Maps: Saguenay, Yukon
- The Incan Empire was located in south America, centering on the Andean mountain range. They were known for their conquests, through both hostile and diplomatic means.
- Units: Incan Bolas Warrior, Incan Huaminca
- Technologies: Incan Roadbuilding (improved infantry speed), Incan Metalworking (improved villager coin-gathering rate), Incan Chasquis Messengers (infantry train faster)
- Maps: Amazonia, Pampas
- The Iroquois Confederacy was a band of five (and eventually six) united Native American tribes that settled along the Ontario river in northern America. A rule of the Confederacy was to keep at peace with all members, and against a foe, they were a strong united force.
- Units: Iroquois Mantlet (light artillery), Iroquois Tomahawk
- Technologies: Iroquois Lacrosse (improved infantry range), Iroquois League (train tribe units at Barracks), Iroquois Morning Wars (1 mantlet for every 2 minutes the game has lasted)
- Maps: Great Lakes, New England
- Also know as the Sioux, the Lakota occupied large territories in north America, and also absorbed the "Great Plains" culture of their neighbors by becoming skilled buffalo hunters.
- Units: Lakota Axe Rider, Lakota Dog Soldier
- Technologies: Lakota Hunting Grounds (herd of cattle appears at TC), Lakota Horse Trading (cavalry train faster), Lakota Dog Soldiers (5 dog soldiers for every 12 minutes the game has lasted)
- Maps: Great Lakes, Great Plains, Rockies
- A large, ancient tribe that settled in the Yucatan peninsula. They were known for their intelligence and architecture.
- Units: Maya Holcan Spearman (anti-cavalry infantry), Medicine Man (healer)
- Technologies: Maya Cotton Armor (improved melee attack), Maya Calendar (improved villager food-gathering rate)
- Maps: Sonora, Yucatan
- Native Americans that were among the first north Pacific tribes to come into contact with the Europeans.
- Units: Nootka Clubman, Nootka War Chief
- Technologies: Nootka Bark Clothing (improved villager hp), Nootka Potlatch (tribe trains faster), Loyal Nootka War Chief (explorer can train nootka war chief)
- Maps: Saguenay, Yukon
- Lower Creek nation that moved into Florida so they wouldn't be dominated by their enemies, and merged with the indigenous tribes already at that location. They provided a tough resistance against European attacks, but fell despite their valiant efforts.
- Units: Seminole Sharktooth Bowman
- Technologies: Seminole Guerrilla Wars (tribe bonus vs buildings), Seminole Bowery (improved archer damage)
- Maps: Bayou, Carolina
- Tribe that at first inhabited the Amazon rain forest, but soon spread southward and occupied the Atlantic coast. They were aggressive, being said to have been ritualistic cannibals.
- Units: Tupi Blackwood Archer
- Technologies: Tupi Poison Arrow Frogs (improved archer attack), Tupi Animal Lore (train up to 5 cougars at tc), Tupi Forest Burning (buildings cost less wood)
- Maps: Amazonia, Pampas
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